Operating System

Operating System

Operating system is a system software that manages the hardware and software resources of the computer and makes it ready to use. It manages the memory storage, processor, I/O devices and also acts interface between machine and user. Moreover, it also performs the basic task such as reorganization of peripheral devices. It is the basic requirement of  a computer. It is a special set of a programs that controls and manages overall operations of a computer. Examples: Windows, Linux, Mac, Android, Unix etc

Fig: Architecture of Operating System

OS kernel:

It is main part of OS. It always remains in main memory. It is main controlling part of OS which controls all running programs and the hardware resources. It can directly communicate with hardware as well as the upper layers.

Utility Software:

The work of Utility Software is to repair and maintain the computer and to keep computer in good working condition Outside this layer, there is a set of utility programs which are used as system management tools, also known as housekeeping works of OS. The main purpose of these tools is to make system up to date and efficient.


It is developed in order to fulfill the user’s requirements. Different application software is available in the market as ready made software. Basic application software also proves by the OS such as Notepad, Word pad etc.

Role of Operating System

  1. It acts as interface between the user and hardware.
  2. It manages data, tracks of files and memory such as primary, secondary etc.
  3. It manages scheduling process and provides the task to different peripheral devices.
  4. Operating system also allow users to share data and software among themselves.
  5. It prevents the system from unauthorized users, hackers, crackers , computer viruses etc.
  6. It makes computer ready to operate.
  7. It creates and manages virtual memory.
  8. It hides the complexities of the hardware from the users.

Spooling And Buffering 

Spooling is the process of using SPOOL (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line). It is the concept of using the peripheral devices like I/O devices at the same time when CPU is busy executing other task. Printers typically can print only a single document at a time and documents to a print queue without waiting. As soon as a process has written its document to the spool device, the process can perform other tasks, while a separate printing process operates the printer.

Buffering is concept of holding data during data transfer. The data is stored in a buffer as it is retrieved from an input device or just before it is sent to an output device. Buffering is used to balance the difference in operating speed of different devices and manage data transfer speed between then. It is process of downloading sufficient data before it is played.  There are two types of buffer: Input Buffer and Output Buffer.

Types of Operating System (Click Here)

Functions of Operating System (Click Here) 


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