HTTPS is the secure version of HTTP, the protocol over which data is sent between the browser and the website which is connected to. ‘S’ stands for Secure that means all the communications between the browser and the website are encrypted. HTTPS uses two secure protocols to encrypt communications SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) or TLS (Transport Layer Security), both are called asymmetric Public Key and the private key i.e anything encrypted with the public key can only be decrypted by the private key and vice versa.
All communication sent over the regular HTTP connection are in plain text and it can be easily read by any hacker and it may break into the connection between the browser and the website. All connection are encrypted with HTTPS connection which means even if somebody managed to break into the connection, they wouldn’t be able to decrypt any of the data which passes between user and website.
SSL certificate is characteristically used on the websites that are used to transmit credit card details, bank details etc. It is standard security protocol for establishing encrypted links between a web server and a browser in an online communication. The usage of SSL technology ensures that all data transmitted between the web server and browser remains encrypted. After the secure connection is made the session is used to encrypt all transmitted data. Web browser connects to a web server secured with SSL.